why were bruegel’s work and subjects favored by local scholars, merchants, and bankers?
2: A decomposer recycles matter back into the food web and biogeochemical cycles.
A decomposer is an organic which feed upon dead decaying organic matter generated after the death of plants and animals. This process results in the simplification of organic matter into simpler substances which are again absorbed by the plants through soil.
The Bruges exhibition renewed interest in the period and initiated scholarship that was to flourish in the 20th century. Johan Huizinga was the first historian to place Netherlandish art squarely in the Burgundian period – outside of nationalistic borders – suggesting in his book The Waning of the Middle Ages, published in 1919, that the flowering of the school in the early 15th century resulted wholly from the tastes set by the Burgundian court.  Another exhibition visitor, Georges Hulin de Loo, published an independent critical catalogue highlighting the large number of mistakes in the official catalogue, which had used attributions and descriptions from the owners. He and Max Friedländer, who visited and wrote a review of the Bruges exhibition, went on to become leading scholars in the field. 
Many thousands of religious objects and artefacts were destroyed, including paintings, sculptures, altarpieces, stained glass, and crucifixes,  and the survival rate of works by the major artists is low – even Jan van Eyck has only some 24 extant works confidently attributed to him. The number grows with later artists, but there are still anomalies; Petrus Christus is considered a major artist, but is given a smaller number of works than van Eyck. In general the later 15th-century works exported to southern Europe have a much higher survival rate. 
The first generation were literate, well educated and mostly from middle-class backgrounds. Van Eyck and van der Weyden were both highly placed in the Burgundian court, with van Eyck in particular assuming roles for which an ability to read Latin was necessary; inscriptions found on his panels indicate that he had a good knowledge of both Latin and Greek. A number of artists were financially successful and much sought-after in the Low Countries and by patrons across Europe. Many artists, including David and Bouts, could afford to donate large works to the churches, monasteries and convents of their choosing. Van Eyck was a valet de chambre at the Burgundian court and had easy access to Philip the Good. Van der Weyden was a prudent investor in stocks and property; Bouts was commercially minded and married the heiress Catherine “Mettengelde” (“with the money”). Vrancke van der Stockt invested in land.
By the 15th century the reach and influence of the Burgundian princes meant that the Low Countries’ merchant and banker classes were in the ascendancy. The early to mid-century saw great rises in international trade and domestic wealth, leading to an enormous increase in the demand for art. Artists from the area attracted patronage from the Baltic coast, the north German and Polish regions, the Iberian Peninsula, Italy and the powerful families of England and Scotland. At first, masters had acted as their own dealers, attending fairs where they could also buy frames, panels and pigments. The mid-century saw the development of art dealership as a profession; the activity became purely commercially driven, dominated by the mercantile class.
The authors would like to thank Sébastien Commain – currently a doctoral student at the University of Luxembourg and research assistant to Professor Howarth – for his help conducting a number of interviews with financial company and association representatives in Brussels and Paris. This paper was partly written while Lucia Quaglia was a research fellow at the Scuola Normale Superiore, Florence.
This paper analyses the policy developments concerning the Single Market in finance in the context of Brexit. Theoretically, we engage with two bodies of work that make contrasting predictions on European financial market integration and the development of European Union (EU) policies on financial regulation: one focused upon a neo-mercantilist ‘battle’ amongst member states and the other stressing the importance of transnational financial networks (or coalitions). Empirically, we find limited evidence of the formation of cross-national alliances in favour of the United Kingdom (UK) retaining broad access to the EU Single Market in financial services, the presence of which would have aligned with the expectations of analyses focused upon transnational networks. By contrast, the main financial centres in the EU27 and their national authorities competed to lure financial business away from the UK – what we explain in terms of a ‘battle’ amongst member states and their national financial centres.
After the emperor Constantine had proclaimed freedom of religion, the Roman Catholic Church favored clarity in the display of religious artwork.
In sacred environments there were to be no statues too similar to pagan sculptures or idols condemned by the Bible.
Thus mosaic artists focused on the essential.
The great achievement of the Italian Renaissance masters made a strong impression on the artists of northern Europe; among these, Albrecht Durer, master of the visionary and the fantastic, and Luchas Cranach, elegant and trendy painter.