who invented surrealism
By Charles Moffat. Edited by Suzanne MacNevin.
Historical Origins of The Surrealist Art Movement
Many argue that surrealism, as an identifiable cultural movement, ended with the death of Breton in 1966. Others believe that it remains a vital and relevant force today.
Attractive to writers, artists, photographers and filmmakers from around the world who shared this aggressive rejection of conventional artistic and moral values, surrealism quickly became an international movement. It exerted enormous impact on the cultural life of many countries in the interwar years and later.
Object (1936) – Also known as
Fur-Covered Cup, Saucer, Spoon.
Museum of Modern Art, New York.
By Meret Oppenheim.
The figurative or representational style of Surrealism (Veristic) appears at its most successful in the work of Magritte, Dali and Delvaux, and in the work of certain other artists who in their variety and achievement escape categorization in any one mode. Picasso was one, Ernst was another, and Arp yet another, and in the 1930s and 1940s Giacometti and Moore (1898-1986). In addition, note that this style of surrealist painting had been anticipated by the French symbolist Odilon Redon (1840-1916).
Other painters joined the movement in the 1920s. Yves Tanguy was a writer until the works of de Chirico inspired him to teach himself to paint in 1923. Tanguy specialized in infinity dreamscapes featuring ambiguous figures, as in 1927’s Mama, Papa Is Wounded!
Alberto Giacometti was a Swiss sculptor who met Masson in 1928. He was influenced by African and Egyptian art, which he combined with the dreamlike aesthetic to create bizarre, stylized figures.
Beside the use of dream analysis, they emphasized that “one could combine inside the same frame, elements not normally found together to produce illogical and startling effects.”  Breton included the idea of the startling juxtapositions in his 1924 manifesto, taking it in turn from a 1918 essay by poet Pierre Reverdy, which said: “a juxtaposition of two more or less distant realities. The more the relationship between the two juxtaposed realities is distant and true, the stronger the image will be−the greater its emotional power and poetic reality.” 
Surrealism as a visual movement had found a method: to expose psychological truth; stripping ordinary objects of their normal significance, to create a compelling image that was beyond ordinary formal organization, in order to evoke empathy from the viewer.