which art movement was a major influence on abstract expressionism?
Abstract expressionism is a post–World War II art movement in American painting, developed in New York in the 1940s.  It was the first specifically American movement to achieve international influence and put New York City at the center of the western art world, a role formerly filled by Paris. Although the term “abstract expressionism” was first applied to American art in 1946 by the art critic Robert Coates, it had been first used in Germany in 1919 in the magazine Der Sturm, regarding German Expressionism. In the United States, Alfred Barr was the first to use this term in 1929 in relation to works by Wassily Kandinsky. 
During the late 1940s, Jackson Pollock’s radical approach to painting revolutionized the potential for all Contemporary art that followed him. To some extent, Pollock realized that the journey toward making a work of art was as important as the work of art itself. Like Pablo Picasso‘s innovative reinventions of painting and sculpture near the turn of the century via Cubism and constructed sculpture, with influences as disparate as Navaho sand paintings, surrealism, Jungian analysis, and Mexican mural art,  Pollock redefined what it was to produce art. His move away from easel painting and conventionality was a liberating signal to the artists of his era and to all that came after. Artists realized that Jackson Pollock’s process—the placing of unstretched raw canvas on the floor where it could be attacked from all four sides using artist materials and industrial materials; linear skeins of paint dripped and thrown; drawing, staining, brushing; imagery and non-imagery—essentially took art-making beyond any prior boundary. Abstract expressionism in general expanded and developed the definitions and possibilities that artists had available for the creation of new works of art.
The Abstract Expressionist movement of 1950s New York would make a huge impact on the art world and bloom outward to influence a second generation of Abstract Expressionist artists with slightly different concerns. These artists were more diverse in terms of gender, socio-cultural environment, and geography although a key hub did emerge in San Francisco. Greenberg coined these followers of a decidedly de Kooning style, those who painted with a “tenth street touch,” or loaded brush. Unlike their forebears, the second-generation artists’ emphasis shifted from the interior, subjective world to the objective exterior – analyzing and questioning what gave things meaning. Greenberg staged a show in 1964 called “Post-Painterly Abstraction” to showcase these new styles, which had arisen from the influence of Abstract Expressionism and showcased this new generation of talent. Lyrical Abstraction and Hard Edge would also emerge during this time. Second Generation Abstract Expressionists included Morris Louis, Kenneth Noland, Ellsworth Kelly, Frank Stella, Joan Mitchell, and many others.
By the late 1940s, many factors were in place to give birth to the new movement – however varied and disparate its artists’ work. Clyfford Still has been credited for kick-starting the movement in the years immediately following World War II with his own shift from representational to large, abstract works. In 1947 Jackson Pollock developed his signature drip technique. The following year, Willem de Kooning had an influential show at the Charles Egan Gallery where he introduced his Women paintings, famously eliminating composition, light, arrangement, and relationships from his female portraits so that figuration turned into the abstract. Barnett Newman arrived at his artistic breakthrough with the picture Onement I; and Mark Rothko began painting the “multi-form” paintings that would lead to the notable works of his mature period. In 1951,18 like-minded artists mounted a boycott of an exhibition of contemporary art at the Metropolitan Museum called “American Painting Today – 1950.” Afterwards, they were cajoled into posing for a photo for Life magazine and were baptized as “The Irascibles.” The piece popularized the term Abstract Expressionism, giving the movement a sense of group identity and common purpose.
Discover the innovative tecniques of Abstract Expressionist painters
Abstract Expressionism marked the beginning of New York CityвЂ™s influence as the center of the Western art world. The world of the Abstract Expressionist artists was firmly rooted in Lower Manhattan. A walk along 8th Street would take you from the Waldorf Cafeteria, where penniless artists made вЂњtomato soupвЂќ from the free hot water and ketchup; past the Hans Hofmann School of Fine artists founded by the painter of the same name; to The Club, a loft where lectures and heated arguments about art carried on late into the night. Jackson PollockвЂ™s studio was on East 8th Street, Willem de KooningвЂ™s and Philip GustonвЂ™s were on East 10th, and although Franz Kline moved among various homes and studios in the area, most nights found him and many of his contemporaries at the Cedar Street Tavern on University Place.
Homage to the Square: Apparition (1959)
But the two main forerunners of Abstract Expressionism were Arshile Gorky (1905-48) and Hans Hofmann (1880-1966), neither of whom were connected with the early expressionist movement in Germany. Gorky by 1942 had arrived at a very free, calligraphic brushwork, very bright in colour, often entirely without figurative reference. “I never finish a painting, I just stop working on it for a while.” Hofmann established a profoundly influencial school in New York where he not only provided a forcefully articulated theoretical support for non-figurative art, but remained very open to the stimulous of the new. In particular he reflected symbolist ideas of the independence of the world of art from the world of appearances: he used colour to express mood as Kandinsky had, yet retained a feeling for structure that derives from Paul Cezanne (1839-1906) and Cubism. Anticipating Pollock, he even experimented with “drip” techniques in 1940, but his own most magical colouristic inventions, coming at the end of his life, express a radiant serenity very different from anything Pollock produced. Among Hofmann’s acolytes was the art critic Clement Greenberg, a vigorous advocate of Abstract Expressionism, and among his students was the artist Lee Krasner who introduced Hofmann to her husband Jackson Pollock.
Colour Field Painters: Mark Rothko, Barnett Newman, Clyfford Still worked with simple, unified blocks of colour.
The new critics elevated their proteges by casting other artists as “followers” or ignoring those who did not serve their promotional goal.