when was sandro botticelli born
Botticelli was born and raised in Via Nuova, Florence. His first job was that of working as a goldsmith, as he was trained by Antonio, his elder brother. This was a job that he worked at for many years, of which he was incredibly successful.
In particular, Madonna and Child was one of his most gracious paintings, that was popular with the individuals of his day.
Botticelli focused most of his career on religious and mythologic content, but he also produced many portraits. Most of them are various members of the Medici family. Since the commissions often went to Botticelli’s workshop, it is impossible to know for sure which artists worked on which portrait. However, the identification of similar elements is used to try and identify authentic Botticelli work.
Botticelli’s work after 1500 is more somber in tone and specifically religious in content. Paintings like his 1501 “Mystic Crucifixion” are emotionally intense. No one knows for sure what happened in the last years of Botticelli’s life, but he died a poor man in 1510. He is buried in the chapel of the Vespucci family in the church of Ognissanti in Florence.
Sandro Botticelli’s father apprenticed him to a goldsmith after his schooling was finished. But, since Sandro preferred painting, his father placed him under Filippo Lippi, who was one of the most admired Florentine masters. By 1470 Botticelli had established himself in Florence as an independent master with his own workshop.
These transitions in Botticelli’s style can be seen in the small panels of Judith (The Return of Judith) and Holofernes (The Discovery of the Body of Holofernes), both c. 1470, and in his first dated work, Fortitude (1470), which was painted for the hall of the Tribunale dell’Are della Mercanzia, or merchants’ tribunal, in Florence. Botticelli’s art from that time shows a use of ochre in the shadowed areas of flesh tones that gives a brown warmth very different from Lippi’s pallor. The forms in his paintings are defined with a line that is at once incisive and flowing, and there is a growing ability to suggest the character and even the mood of the figures by action, pose, and facial expression.
In 1472, Botticelli’s position allowed him to join the group of Florentine painters called the Compagnia di San Luca. His early work in this period was produced for churches in Florence, including his Adoration of the Magi (c.1476) for Santa Maria Novella, one of the city’s most important religious spaces. The painting contains portraits of Cosimo de’ Medici, and his sons Piero and Giovanni, along with other members of the Medici family. In addition to these, the painting is thought to include the only known self-portrait by the artist.
The first documented painting by Botticelli is Fortitude from a panel of seven paintings of the virtues, the other six having been painted by the workshop of Antonio del Pollaiuolo, who was originally commissioned for the work. Botticelli was influenced by Pollaiuolo’s naturalistic renditions of the human body, and understanding of anatomy, which Pollaiuolo reputedly studied from dissected dead bodies. However, Botticelli always held back from true naturalism, preferring a distorted figure if it better served the overall idea. Botticelli’s early Madonnas already display the human warmth and tenderness that would come to distinguish his work throughout his life.
Details about Botticelli’s personal life are sparse, but his prolific professional career is well documented due to the stunning heights of his fame.
During Botticelli’s era the Papacy was the most respected of art critics. Papal sanction was the ultimate endorsement for any burgeoning artist and an opportunity to paint one of Rome’s greatest monuments, The Sistine Chapel, was the highest of honors.