what art movement was braque the portuguese
After a period of healing, Braque returned to his artistic ability in the Cubist movement. Braque entered what is called a synthetic phase of Cubism. He began to use more colors and to represent objects through large planes. Braque created “Woman Musician” in 1917, which exhibited the geometric planes and strong colors of synthetic Cubism (Braque). He began to stray away from Cubism and began to draw with a flowing technique such as the smooth framework of “Still Life with Playing Cards.” After this move, Braque experimented with pictures of pagan women, pedestal tables, birds, ancient Greek pottery, and figures. Braque finally won the Carnegie Prize in 1937. He became a world-renowned artist and in 1961 he received the highest honor—he became the first living artist to have his works displayed in the Louvre.
As Braque moved along in the Cubist movement, he kept an art studio in Montmartre, but he also rotated in going many other places for experience. After marrying in 1912 to Marcelle Lapre, Braque resided near Avignon (Braque). He decided to join the army as a sergeant once World War I began and was commended for his bravery. Braque suffered from a severe head injury in 1915 and spent a while in hospitals and institutions. In his stay, Braque recorded broken ideas and sayings that were ultimately collected by Braque’s friend and poet Pierre Reverdy and published as “Thoughts and Reflections on Painting.”
To understand Cubism it helps to go back to Cézanne’s still life paintings or even further, to the Renaissance. Let me use an example that worked nicely in the classroom. I was lecturing, trying to untangle Cubism while drinking incresingly cold coffee from a paper cup. I set the cup on the desk in the front of the room and said, “If I were a Renaissance artist in mid-15th century Italy painting that cup on that table, I would position myself at particular point in space and construct the surrounding objects and space frozen in that spot and from that single perspective. On the other hand, if this was the late 19th century and I was Cézanne, I might allow myself to open this view up quite a bit. Perhaps I would focus on, and record, the perceptual changes of shape and line that result when I shift my weight from one leg to the other or when I lean in toward the cup to get a closer look. I might even allow myself to render slightly around the far side of the paper cup since, as Cézanne, I am interested in vision and memory working together. Finally, if I were Braque or Picasso in the early 20th century, I would want to express even more on the canvas. I would not be satisfied with the limiting conventions of Renaissance perspective nor even with the initial explorations of the master Cézanne.
As a Cubist, I want to express my total visual understanding of the paper coffee cup. I want more than the Renaissance painter or even Cézanne, I want to express the entire cup simultaneously on the static surface of the canvas since I can hold all that visual information in my memory. I want to render the cup’s front, its sides, its back, and its inner walls, its bottom from both inside and out, and I want to do this on a flat canvas. How can this be done? The answer is provided by The Portuguese. In this canvas, everything was fractured. The guitar player and the dock was just so many pieces of broken form, almost broken glass. By breaking these objects into smaller elements, Braque and Picasso are able to overcome the unified singularity of an object and instead transform it into an object of vision. At this point the class began to look a little confused, so I turned back to the paper cup and began to tear it into pieces (I had finished the coffee). If I want to be able to show you both the back and front and inside and outside simultaneously, I can fragment the object. Basically, this is the strategy of the Cubists. – from smarthistory
After 1928, Braque‘s colours tend to become lighter and, in general, his pictures have a more fluid and less sensual feel (Blue Mandolin, 1930, City Art Gallery, St Louis). Their free and floating line has strong echoes of Picasso‘s curvilinear Cubism of 1923-4 (Still Life with Pipe, Kunstmuseum, Basel). The two tendencies joined together just before the war in great, brightly coloured ornamental paintings, full of imagination and animation (Still life with Mandolin, 1938, private collection, Chicago). At the same time human figures start to reappear. Portrayed from two aspects, full face and in profile, corresponding to a shadowy and a lit side, they resemble the earlier works of Picasso (The painter and his model, 1939, private collection, New York).
The advent of war stimulated the creation of more serious works, reflecting the austerity of the times (The Kitchen Table, 1942, Musee National d’Art Moderne, Paris). After 1947, Braque’s output was frequently interrupted by illness, but between 1949 and 1956 he completed his series of Ateliers (Studios): eight canvases that try to sum up the themes and experiments of his past work (Atelier VI, 1950-1, Maeght Foundation, St Paul-de-Vence). The bird motif that appears in some of these paintings reappears as the theme of the decoration that Braque carried out (1952-3) for the Etruscan Hall in the Louvre. It appears to symbolize his need, towards the end of his life, to escape from the enclosed world of all his other painting.
Both artists collaborated extremely closely during this period. As a craftsman’s son, Braque was quick to fasten on new techniques, although his partner was able to use them more creatively. Examples of paintings which show how similiar the two were in style at this date – are Braque’s The Portuguese (1911, Kunstmuseum, Basel) and Picasso‘s The Accordionist (1911, Guggenheim Museum, New York). It was in The Portuguese that Braque first incorporated stencilled letters, thus perhaps inadvertently signalling the shape of extraneous things to come.
For many laymen, analytical Cubism is Cubism. By comparison, the vivid colours of earlier Cubist-style paintings and later synthetic Cubism are far less well known. So was analytical Cubism as revolutionary as the art critics say? Did Picasso and Braque really create a new visual language in the visual arts? It is almost impossible to provide a proper answer to these questions a century after the event. Analytic Cubism was certainly hailed as revolutionary at the time, but not by the public: it was other artists, critics and dealers who were most impressed. This was largely because, with the exception of the 1913 Armory Show in New York, neither Picasso nor Braque exhibited their analytic Cubist works in public before the First World War. Even so, the idiom was adopted and developed by many painters in Paris, and promoted by art dealers like Daniel-Henry Kahnweiler and Leonce Rosenberg (1879-1947), so that by 1911 commentators were talking of a “Cubist School”. Picasso continued to employ multiple-viewpoint Cubist-style imagery for much of his life (eg. Portrait of Dora Maar, 1937, Musee Picasso, Paris; Female Nude and Smoker, 1968, Galerie Rosengart, Lucerne), while Braque devoted much of his life to still life painting, in a variety of styles. Perhaps the fairest comment is to say: Yes, analytic Cubism was truly revolutionary, but not really for itself. It was revolutionary because it stimulated painters to rethink the canons of traditional art.
The Portuguese is oil on canvas, completed in 1911 by Braque. In the painting, everything is fractured. The dock and the guitar player were constructed through so many pieces of broken forms, almost as if they were broken glass. By breaking these objects into smaller pieces, Braque was able to overcome the unified single nature of the object, creating a rare vision. The neutral colors make the content unclear. The painting was inspired by memories of a Portuguese musician in Marseilles. Braque uses wallpaper, painted paper and newspaper, along with light brown and dark tones to bring out colors. Henceforth, you will not see the painting for what it is, but search for its meaning in the objects.
Georges Braque was a renowned artist who, together with Pablo Picasso in the early twentieth century, developed cubism as a historical movement. Cubism later spread throughout Europe. The Portuguese is a famous cubism painting by Braque. The painting exudes cubism through its use of geometrical fragmentation and monochromatic appeal.