surrealism and dadaism
The Found Object, or the oject trouvé, was the special domain of Marcel Duchamp who was preceded the Dada artists in his rejection of traditional art. Duchamp’s appropriation of anonymous factory made items was narrow and programmatic to his specific intentions, but the Surrealists were more open to the found object. Like Duchamp, the Surrealists bent the concept of a supposedly ordinary item to their own purposes, which was the search for the “Marvelous.” For Duchamp, the found object was “encountered” randomly and viewed with detachment and indifference, but for the Surrealists, the found object was the object of passion. Indeed, the object was poetic; implying a metaphor, indicating the item in question meant more or something else—-“the Marvelous.”
A number of distinct strands can be discerned in the visual manifestation of Surrealism. Artists such as Max Ernst and André Masson favoured automatism in which conscious control is suppressed and the subconscious is allowed to take over. Conversely, Salvador Dali and René Magritte pursued an hallucinatory sense of super-reality in which the scenes depicted make no real sense. A third variation was the juxtaposition of unrelated items, setting up a startling unreality outside the bounds of normal reality.
Alberto Giacometti, The Palace at 4 a.m., 1932. Wood, glass, wire, and string, 25 x 28-1/4 x 15-3/4 inches (The Museum of Modern Art)
After the cabaret closed down, Dada activities moved on to a new gallery, and Hugo Ball left for Bern. Tzara began a relentless campaign to spread Dada ideas. He bombarded French and Italian artists and writers with letters, and soon emerged as the Dada leader and master strategist. The Cabaret Voltaire re-opened, and is still in the same place at the Spiegelgasse 1 in the Niederdorf.
The Dadaists imitated the techniques developed during the cubist movement through the pasting of cut pieces of paper items, but extended their art to encompass items such as transportation tickets, maps, plastic wrappers, etc. to portray aspects of life, rather than representing objects viewed as still life. They also invented the “chance collage” technique, involving dropping torn scraps of paper onto a larger sheet and then pasting the pieces wherever they landed.
The originators and major players of the movement converged in Paris around 1920 and the movement surged there with published works, demonstrations, and Dadaist Theater.
It was workable for Surrealism to be driven basically in light of the fact that the gathering was independent in Paris rather than being separated by not only different cities, but also entire continents.. Breton was to some degree heavy handed for a pioneer of a cutting edge development, removing individuals who disappointed him or went against the ideals he held fast, however he held the gathering together for a quarter century, a rather surprisingly long life-span in comparison to other movements.
Sigmund Freud believe thoughts and personality were divided into cognizant and unconscious thoughts that gave humans their identity, their inner self their ego and their super-ego. Surrealists believe that with liberal expressionism of ones individual vision creates a nauseas art-for where a surrealists believe that their art typifies Sigmund Frueds theories of thoughts and consciousness in their work. Typically surrealist art will be trying to find order in the human consciousness whereas dada finds disorder.