artists in the pre-raphaelite brotherhood were inspired by works from
After 1856, Dante Gabriel Rossetti became an inspiration for the medievalising strand of the movement. He was the link between the two types of Pre-Raphaelite painting (nature and Romance) after the PRB became lost in the later decades of the century. Rossetti, although the least committed to the brotherhood, continued the name and changed its style. He began painting versions of femme fatales using models like Jane Morris, in paintings such as Proserpine, The Blue Silk Dress, and La Pia de’ Tolomei. His work influenced his friend William Morris, in whose firm Morris, Marshall, Faulkner & Co. he became a partner, and with whose wife Jane he may have had an affair. Ford Madox Brown and Edward Burne-Jones also became partners in the firm. Through Morris’s company, the ideals of the Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood influenced many interior designers and architects, arousing interest in medieval designs and other crafts leading to the Arts and Crafts movement headed by William Morris. Holman Hunt was involved with the movement to reform design through the Della Robbia Pottery company.
Artists influenced by the brotherhood include John Brett, Philip Calderon, Arthur Hughes, Gustave Moreau, Evelyn De Morgan,  Frederic Sandys (who entered the Pre-Raphaelite circle in 1857)  and John William Waterhouse. Ford Madox Brown, who was associated with them from the beginning, is often seen as most closely adopting the Pre-Raphaelite principles. One follower who developed his own distinct style was Aubrey Beardsley, who was pre-eminently influenced by Burne-Jones. 
Artist: John Everett Millais
Rossetti’s painting of the Annunciation is still mystifying viewers in the 21st century. The angel Gabriel’s announcement to the Virgin Mary of her impending miraculous pregnancy is one of the most familiar and popular subjects in religious art, but Rossetti’s interpretation of the moment is utterly singular and was criticized for its realism when it was first exhibited.
Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood, group of young British painters who banded together in 1848 in reaction against what they conceived to be the unimaginative and artificial historical painting of the Royal Academy and who purportedly sought to express a new moral seriousness and sincerity in their works. They were inspired by Italian art of the 14th and 15th centuries, and their adoption of the name Pre-Raphaelite expressed their admiration for what they saw as the direct and uncomplicated depiction of nature typical of Italian painting before the High Renaissance and, particularly, before the time of Raphael. Although the Brotherhood’s active life lasted not quite five years, its influence on painting in Britain, and ultimately on the decorative arts and interior design, was profound.
Some of the founding members exhibited their first works anonymously, signing their paintings with the monogram PRB. When their identity and youth were discovered in 1850, their work was harshly criticized by the novelist Charles Dickens, among others, not only for its disregard of academic ideals of beauty but also for its apparent irreverence in treating religious themes with an uncompromising realism. Nevertheless, the leading art critic of the day, John Ruskin, stoutly defended Pre-Raphaelite art, and the members of the group were never without patrons.
They had an interest in and influence on all forms of art, craft and design in 19th-century Britain, and were progressive in trying to break down distinctions between media. Rather than having a division between the fine and applied arts, or between painting and drawing, they worked across different practices. Crucially, Pre-Raphaelitism also gave space to women to not only appear in works of art as models, but also to become artists in their own right, such as May Morris or Julia Margaret Cameron.
Instead the Pre-Raphaelites insisted on an equal focus on all parts of the composition, painting backgrounds first and figures later, all from life. This is what gives their paintings a discordant quality of focus – rather like a high definition film, where the whole depth of field is sharp. They began painting on a white ground (rather than the prepared mid tone ground most artists would use), using pure primary colours rather than mixing them on the palette. In Pre-Raphaelite pictures, everything becomes significant. It’s quite a democratic approach to art.
The reaction against the Grand Manner and classical ideals also manifested itself in Romantic painting and its emphasis on the landscape. The works of John Constable, Thomas Gainsborough, and J.M.W. Turner also proved highly effective in shifting attention away from ugly cityscapes. The Romantics offered a nostalgic portrait of the countryside and agricultural life (nostalgic, given that it was a lifestyle that was fast disappearing with the onset of industrialization) and the humbling power of nature over the human figure. Many of these works were associated with the idea of “the sublime,” a term coined by Edmund Burke in his book, A Philosophical Enquiry into the Origin of our Ideas of the Sublime and Beautiful (1757), and which proposes that a sublime art would be able to draw out the strongest possible range of emotions in the spectator. The Romantics were championed by the influential art critic John Ruskin, whose work Modern Painters (1843/1846) defended Turner’s originality (in particular), arguing that artists should devote themselves to the truths found in the observation of nature. Ruskin contrasted the “vulgarity” and “insipid repetition” of most academic painting with Turner’s innovative Naturalism and light effects (Turner’s paintings are often said to exemplify the idea of the sublime in art).
In 1848, the year that the Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood was founded, Marx’s Communist Manifesto was published in London and revolutions broke out across Europe, largely driven by the middle and working classes and demands for democratic reforms. In this context, Pre-Raphaelite interest in medievalism and Naturalism, when set in opposition to the “progress” of industrial society, had unavoidable political implications. Although most of the Pre-Raphaelites were only tenuously associated with socialism, it is tempting to read, for example, a certain challenge to traditional class hierarchy in Millais’ Christ in the House of His Parents, particularly when Charles Dickens condemned the artist’s realistic portrayal of an impoverished Virgin Mary as “a monster in the vilest cabaret in France or in the lowest gin-shop in England.” However, contemporary social and class conflicts are visible in a few of the Pre-Raphaelite’s works, including one in Madox Brown’s painting Work (1852-65). The Pre-Raphaelite belief that art could alter society gathered strength and developed its full expression in the Arts and Crafts movement, whose mission was clearly articulated by William Morris in socialist terms – to transform the lives of the working classes through arts and design.